Questions related Windows system use.

How can I protect my computer from viruses and malware? …

The best protection from viruses and malware, not a good antivirus or firewall, but the right user behaviour using computer.

Below listed basic security “best practices” from Symantec Security.

  • Use a firewall to block all incoming connections from the Internet to services that should not be publicly available. By default, you should deny all incoming connections and only allow services you explicitly want to offer to the outside world.
  • Enforce a password policy. Complex passwords make it difficult to crack password files on compromised computers. This helps to prevent or limit damage when a computer is compromised.
  • Ensure that programs and users of the computer use the lowest level of privileges necessary to complete a task. When prompted for a root or UAC password, ensure that the program asking for administration-level access is a legitimate application.
  • Disable AutoPlay to prevent the automatic launching of executable files on network and removable drives, and disconnect the drives when not required. If write access is not required, enable read-only mode if the option is available.
  • Turn off file sharing if not needed. If file sharing is required, use ACLs and password protection to limit access. Disable anonymous access to shared folders.
  • Grant access only to user accounts with strong passwords to folders that must be shared.
  • Turn off and remove unnecessary services. By default, many operating systems install auxiliary services that are not critical. These services are avenues of attack. If they are removed, threats have less avenues of attack.
  • If a threat exploits one or more network services, disable, or block access to, those services until a patch is applied.
  • Always keep your patch levels up-to-date, especially on computers that host public services and are accessible through the firewall, such as HTTP, FTP, mail, and DNS services.
  • Configure your email server to block or remove email that contains file attachments that are commonly used to spread threats, such as .vbs, .bat, .exe, .pif and .scr files.
  • Isolate compromised computers quickly to prevent threats from spreading further. Perform a forensic analysis and restore the computers using trusted media.
  • Train employees not to open attachments unless they are expecting them. Also, do not execute software that is downloaded from the Internet unless it has been scanned for viruses. Simply visiting a compromised Web site can cause infection if certain browser vulnerabilities are not patched.
  • If Bluetooth is not required for mobile devices, it should be turned off. If you require its use, ensure that the device’s visibility is set to “Hidden” so that it cannot be scanned by other Bluetooth devices. If device pairing must be used, ensure that all devices are set to “Unauthorized”, requiring authorization for each connection request. Do not accept applications that are unsigned or sent from unknown sources.

You can check for unknown terms used in this document here Security Response glossary.

What Mac keyboard shortcuts mean ?

By pressing a combination of keys, you can do things that normally need a mouse, trackpad, or other input device.

To use a keyboard shortcut, hold down one or more modifier keys while pressing the last key of the shortcut. For example, to use the shortcut Command”⌘”+C (copy), hold down Command”⌘”, press C, then release both keys. Mac menus and keyboards often use symbols for certain keys, including the modifier keys:

•Command ⌘
•Shift ⇧
•Option ⌥
•Control ⌃
•Caps Lock ⇪

If you’re using a keyboard made for Windows PCs, use the Alt key instead of Option, and the Windows logo key instead of Command. Some Mac keyboards and shortcuts use special keys in the top row, which include icons for volume, display brightness, and other functions. Press the icon key to perform that function, or combine it with the Fn key to use it as an F1, F2, F3, or other standard function key.

To learn more shortcuts, check the menus of the app you’re using. Every app can have its own shortcuts, and shortcuts that work in one app may not work in another.

How do I COPY and PASTE with the Mac?…

Command “⌘”+ C (Copy) Copy the selected item to the Clipboard. This also works for files in the Finder.
Command “⌘”+ X (Cut) Cut: Remove the selected item and copy it to the Clipboard.
Command “⌘”+ V (Paste) Paste the contents of the Clipboard into the current document or app. This also works for files in the Finder.

How to delete characters to the right of the cursor on a Mac?… Ctrl+D


Question: “How to delete characters to the right of the cursor position?”
“The one delete key moves left, is there a single keystroke way to delete right with this keyboard?”

Answer: You can use Ctrl⌃+D to delete a single character to the right of the cursor. This is because all Macs use Emacs-style keyboard shortcuts.

Ctrl⌃+A: Beginning of line (like Home)
Ctrl⌃+B: Backward one character (like hitting the left arrow)
Ctrl⌃+D: Forward delete (like the Forward Delete button on Macs)
Ctrl⌃+E: End of line (like End)
Ctrl⌃+F: Forward one character (like hitting the right arrow)
Ctrl⌃+H: Backward delete (like hitting the Delete button on Macs)
Ctrl⌃+K: Kill/remove text between cursor and the end of the line
Ctrl⌃+N: Next line (like down arrow)
Ctrl⌃+P: Previous line (like up arrow)
Ctrl⌃+U: Remove/delete current line
Ctrl⌃+V: Page down
Ctrl⌃+Y: Paste text which has been “killed” by Ctrl⌃+K