I recently required the use of ESXi Customizer to integrate some NIC drivers into my ESXi 5.5 ISO.
Having never used it before, I was surprised to see that it was not compatible with Windows 10 but as the script is now unsupported, I understand why. I’m no programmer but it states that it is supported on Windows 8 and 8.1 so 10 should be similar enough to work so I got cracking to disable the compatibility checks and see if I could make use of it.
Once you’ve downloaded and extracted ESXi Customizer, you’ll have a bunch of files in a folder. The file we are looking for is called ESXI-Customizer.cmd and you need to open that in a text editor such as Notepad, you should be able to right-click it and choose ‘Edit’ to do this.
Then you need to find and remove the following lines:
if /I "%1"=="silent" goto :eof
if "!WinVer!"=="5.0" call :logCons --- INFO: Running on Windows 2000. What?!
if "!WinVer!"=="5.1" call :logCons --- INFO: Running on Windows XP.
if "!WinVer!"=="5.2" call :logCons --- INFO: Running on Windows Server 2003.
if "!WinVer!"=="6.0" call :logCons --- INFO: Running on Windows Vista or Server 2008.
if "!WinVer!"=="6.1" call :logCons --- INFO: Running on Windows 7 or Server 2008 R2.
if "!WinVer!"=="6.2" call :logCons --- INFO: Running on Windows 8 or Server 2012.
if "!WinVer!"=="6.3" call :logCons --- INFO: Running on Windows 8.1 or Server 2012 R2.
if "!WinVer!" GTR "6.3" call :logCons --- WARNING: Running on a Windows newer than 8.1 / 2012 R2. Don't know if this will work ...
if "!WinVer!" LSS "5.1" call :earlyFatal Unsupported Windows Version: !WinVer!. At least Windows XP is required & exit /b 1
if "!WinVer!" NEQ "6.1" call :logCons --- WARNING: Your Windows version is supported for customizing ESXi 5.x, but not ESXi 4.1.
And save the file. Now, you can run it and use the program as needed and it will open and run on Windows 10. I wouldn’t recommend using this for anything mission-critical as I can’t guarantee there aren’t any bugs with running it on an unsupported system but for me it worked fine and the resulting ISO worked perfectly.
Using ESXi Customizer on Windows 10
OpenStack is a free and open-source software platform for cloud computing, mostly deployed as infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS), whereby virtual servers and other resources are made available to customers. The software platform consists of interrelated components that control diverse, multi-vendor hardware pools of processing, storage, and networking resources throughout a data center. Users either manage it through a web-based dashboard, through command-line tools, or through RESTful web services.
OpenStack began in 2010 as a joint project of Rackspace Hosting and NASA. As of 2016, it is managed by the OpenStack Foundation, a non-profit corporate entity established in September 2012 to promote OpenStack software and its community. More than 500 companies have joined the project.
In July 2010, Rackspace Hosting and NASA jointly launched an open-source cloud-software initiative known as OpenStack. The OpenStack project intended to help organizations offer cloud-computing services running on standard hardware. The community’s first official release, code-named Austin, appeared three months later on October 21, 2010, with plans to release regular updates of the software every few months. The early code came from NASA’s Nebula platform as well as from Rackspace’s Cloud Files platform.
In 2011, developers of the Ubuntu Linux distribution adopted OpenStack with an unsupported technology preview of the OpenStack “Bexar” release for Ubuntu 11.04 “Natty Narwhal“. Ubuntu’s sponsor Canonical then introduced full support for OpenStack clouds, starting with OpenStack’s Cactus release.
OpenStack became available in Debian Sid from the Openstack “Cactus” release in 2011, and the first release of Debian including OpenStack was Debian 7.0 (code name “Wheezy”), including OpenStack 2012.1 (code name: “Essex”).
In October 2011, SUSE announced the public preview of the industry’s first fully configured OpenStack powered appliance based on the “Diablo” OpenStack release. In August 2012, SUSE announced its commercially supported enterprise OpenStack distribution based on the “Essex” release.
Lew Tucker, VP & CTO, Cloud Computing of Cisco in 2012
In 2012, Red Hat announced a preview of their OpenStack distribution, beginning with the “Essex” release. After another preview release, Red Hat introduced commercial support for OpenStack with the “Grizzly” release, in July 2013.
In July 2013, NASA released an internal audit citing lack of technical progress and other factors as the agency’s primary reason for dropping out as an active developer of the project and instead focus on the use of public clouds. This report is contradicted in part by remarks made by Ames Research Center CIO, Ray Obrien.
In December 2013, Oracle announced it had joined OpenStack as a Sponsor and planned to bring OpenStack to Oracle Solaris, Oracle Linux, and many of its products. It followed by announcing Oracle OpenStack distributions for Oracle Solaris and for Oracle Linux using Icehouse on 24 September 2014.
In May 2014, HP announced HP Helion and released a preview of HP Helion OpenStack Community, beginning with the IceHouse release. HP has operated HP Helion Public Cloud on OpenStack since 2012.
At the 2014 Interop and Tech Field Day, software-defined networking was demonstrated by Avaya using Shortest path bridging and OpenStack as an automated campus, extending automation from the data center to the end device, removing manual provisioning from service delivery.
As of March 2015, NASA still makes use of OpenStack private cloud and has RFPs out for OpenStack public cloud support.
The OpenStack community collaborates around a six-month, time-based release cycle with frequent development milestones. During the planning phase of each release, the community gathers for an OpenStack Design Summit to facilitate developer working sessions and to assemble plans.
Recent OpenStack Summits have taken place in Austin on 25–29 April 2016, and Barcelona on 25–28 October 2016. Earlier OpenStack Summits have taken place also in Tokyo in October 2015, Vancouver in May 2015, and Paris in November 2014. The summit in May 2014 in Atlanta drew 4,500 attendees — a 50% increase from the Hong Kong summit six months earlier.
OpenStack has a modular architecture with various code names for its components.
OpenStack Compute (Nova) is a cloud computing fabric controller, which is the main part of an IaaS system. It is designed to manage and automate pools of computer resources and can work with widely available virtualization technologies, as well as bare metal and high-performance computing (HPC) configurations. KVM, VMware, and Xen are available choices for hypervisortechnology (virtual machine monitor), together with Hyper-V and Linux container technology such as LXC.
It is written in Python and uses many external libraries such as Eventlet (for concurrent programming), Kombu (for AMQPcommunication), and SQLAlchemy (for database access). Compute’s architecture is designed to scale horizontally on standard hardware with no proprietary hardware or software requirements and provide the ability to integrate with legacy systems and third-party technologies.
Due to its widespread integration into enterprise-level infrastructures, monitoring OpenStack performance in general, and Nova performance in particular, at scale has become an increasingly important issue. Monitoring end-to-end performance requires tracking metrics from Nova, Keystone, Neutron, Cinder, Swift and other services, in addition to monitoring RabbitMQ which is used by OpenStack services for message passing.
OpenStack Networking (Neutron) is a system for managing networks and IP addresses. OpenStack Networking ensures the network is not a bottleneck or limiting factor in a cloud deployment, and gives users self-service ability, even over network configurations.
OpenStack Networking provides networking models for different applications or user groups. Standard models include flat networks or VLANs that separate servers and traffic. OpenStack Networking manages IP addresses, allowing for dedicated static IP addresses or DHCP. Floating IP addresses let traffic be dynamically rerouted to any resources in the IT infrastructure, so users can redirect traffic during maintenance or in case of a failure.
Users can create their own networks, control traffic, and connect servers and devices to one or more networks. Administrators can use software-defined networking (SDN) technologies like OpenFlow to support high levels of multi-tenancy and massive scale. OpenStack networking provides an extension framework that can deploy and manage additional network services—such as intrusion detection systems (IDS), load balancing, firewalls, and virtual private networks (VPN).
Block storage (Cinder)
OpenStack Block Storage (Cinder) provides persistent block-level storage devices for use with OpenStack compute instances. The block storage system manages the creation, attaching and detaching of the block devices to servers. Block storage volumes are fully integrated into OpenStack Compute and the Dashboard allowing for cloud users to manage their own storage needs. In addition to local Linux server storage, it can use storage platforms including Ceph, CloudByte, Coraid, EMC (ScaleIO, VMAX, VNX and XtremIO), GlusterFS, Hitachi Data Systems, IBM Storage (IBM DS8000, Storwize family, SAN Volume Controller, XIV Storage System, and GPFS), Linux LIO, NetApp, Nexenta, Nimble Storage, Scality, SolidFire, HP (StoreVirtual and 3PAR StoreServ families) and Pure Storage. Block storage is appropriate for performance sensitive scenarios such as database storage, expandable file systems, or providing a server with access to raw block level storage. Snapshot management provides powerful functionality for backing up data stored on block storage volumes. Snapshots can be restored or used to create a new block storage volume.
OpenStack Identity (Keystone) provides a central directory of users mapped to the OpenStack services they can access. It acts as a common authentication system across the cloud operating system and can integrate with existing backend directory services like LDAP. It supports multiple forms of authentication including standard username and password credentials, token-based systems and AWS-style (i.e. Amazon Web Services) logins. Additionally, the catalog provides a queryable list of all of the services deployed in an OpenStack cloud in a single registry. Users and third-party tools can programmatically determine which resources they can access.
OpenStack Image (Glance) provides discovery, registration, and delivery services for disk and server images. Stored images can be used as a template. It can also be used to store and catalog an unlimited number of backups. The Image Service can store disk and server images in a variety of back-ends, including Swift. The Image Service API provides a standard REST interface for querying information about disk images and lets clients stream the images to new servers.
Glance adds many enhancements to existing legacy infrastructures. For example, if integrated with VMware, Glance introduces advanced features to the vSphere family such as vMotion, high availability and dynamic resource scheduling (DRS). vMotion is the live migration of a running VM, from one physical server to another, without service interruption. Thus, it enables a dynamic and automated self-optimizing datacenter, allowing hardware maintenance for the underperforming servers without downtimes.
Other OpenStack modules that need to interact with Images, for example Heat, must communicate with the images metadata through Glance. Also, Nova can present information about the images, and configure a variation on an image to produce an instance. However, Glance is the only module that can add, delete, share, or duplicate images.
Object storage (Swift)
OpenStack Object Storage (Swift) is a scalable redundant storage system. Objects and files are written to multiple disk drives spread throughout servers in the data center, with the OpenStack software responsible for ensuring data replication and integrity across the cluster. Storage clusters scale horizontally simply by adding new servers. Should a server or hard drive fail, OpenStack replicates its content from other active nodes to new locations in the cluster. Because OpenStack uses software logic to ensure data replication and distribution across different devices, inexpensive commodity hard drives and servers can be used.
In August 2009, Rackspace started the development of the precursor to OpenStack Object Storage, as a complete replacement for the Cloud Files product. The initial development team consisted of nine developers. SwiftStack, an object storage software company, is currently the leading developer for Swift with significant contributions from HP, Red Hat, NTT, NEC, IBM and more.
OpenStack Dashboard (Horizon) provides administrators and users with a graphical interface to access, provision, and automate deployment of cloud-based resources. The design accommodates third party products and services, such as billing, monitoring, and additional management tools. The dashboard is also brand-able for service providers and other commercial vendors who want to make use of it. The dashboard is one of several ways users can interact with OpenStack resources. Developers can automate access or build tools to manage resources using the native OpenStack API or the EC2 compatibility API.
Heat is a service to orchestrate multiple composite cloud applications using templates, through both an OpenStack-native REST API and a CloudFormation-compatible Query API.
Mistral is a service that manages workflows. User typically writes a workflow using workflow language based on YAML and uploads the workflow definition to Mistral via its REST API. Then user can start this workflow manually via the same API or configure a trigger to start the workflow on some event.
OpenStack Telemetry (Ceilometer) provides a Single Point Of Contact for billing systems, providing all the counters they need to establish customer billing, across all current and future OpenStack components. The delivery of counters is traceable and auditable, the counters must be easily extensible to support new projects, and agents doing data collections should be independent of the overall system.
Trove is a database-as-a-service provisioning relational and a non-relational database engine.
Elastic map reduce (Sahara)
Sahara is a component to easily and rapidly provision Hadoop clusters. Users will specify several parameters like the Hadoop version number, the cluster topology type, node flavor details (defining disk space, CPU and RAM settings), and others. After a user provides all of the parameters, Sahara deploys the cluster in a few minutes. Sahara also provides means to scale a preexisting Hadoop cluster by adding and removing worker nodes on demand.
Bare metal (Ironic)
Ironic is an OpenStack project that provisions bare metal machines instead of virtual machines. It was initially forked from the Nova Baremetal driver and has evolved into a separate project. It is best thought of as a bare-metal hypervisor API and a set of plugins that interact with the bare-metal hypervisors. By default, it will use PXE and IPMI in concert to provision and turn on and off machines, but Ironic supports and can be extended with vendor-specific plugins to implement additional functionality.
Zaqar is a multi-tenant cloud messaging service for Web developers. The service features a fully RESTful API, which developers can use to send messages between various components of their SaaS and mobile applications by using a variety of communication patterns. Underlying this API is an efficient messaging engine designed with scalability and security in mind. Other OpenStack components can integrate with Zaqar to surface events to end users and to communicate with guest agents that run in the “over-cloud” layer.
OpenStack Shared File System (Manila) provides an open API to manage shares in a vendor agnostic framework. Standard primitives include ability to create, delete, and give/deny access to a share and can be used standalone or in a variety of different network environments. Commercial storage appliances from EMC, NetApp, HP, IBM, Oracle, Quobyte, and Hitachi Data Systems are supported as well as filesystem technologies such as Red Hat GlusterFS or Ceph.
Designate is a multi-tenant REST API for managing DNS. This component provides DNS as a Service and is compatible with many backend technologies, including PowerDNS and BIND. It doesn’t provide a DNS service as such as its purpose is to interface with existing DNS servers to manage DNS zones on a per tenant basis.
Searchlight provides advanced and consistent search capabilities across various OpenStack cloud services. It accomplishes this by offloading user search queries from other OpenStack API servers by indexing their data into ElasticSearch. Searchlight is being integrated into Horizon and also provides a Command-line interface.
Key manager (Barbican)
Barbican is a REST API designed for the secure storage, provisioning and management of secrets. It is aimed at being useful for all environments, including large ephemeral Clouds.
Several OpenStack projects changed names due to trademark issues.
- Neutron was formerly known as Quantum.
- Sahara used to be called Savanna.
- Designate was previously known as Moniker.
- Trove was formerly known as RedDwarf.
- Zaqar was formerly known as Marconi.
Compatibility with other cloud APIs
OpenStack does not strive for compatibility with other clouds APIs. However, there is some amount of compatibility driven by various members of the OpenStack community for whom such things are important.
OpenStack is governed by a non-profit foundation and its board of directors, a technical committee, and a user committee. The board of directors is made up of eight members from each of the eight platinum sponsors, eight members from the 24 defined maximum allowed Gold sponsors, and eight members elected by the Foundation individual members.
OpenStack has a wide variety of users, from a number of different sectors. Notable users include:
As the OpenStack project has matured, vendors have pioneered multiple ways for customers to deploy OpenStack:
- OpenStack-based Public Cloud: A vendor provides a public cloud computing system based on the OpenStack project.
- On-premises distribution: In this model, a customer downloads and installs an OpenStack distribution within their internal network. See Distributions.
- Hosted OpenStack Private Cloud: A vendor hosts an OpenStack-based private cloud: including the underlying hardware and the OpenStack software.
- OpenStack-as-a-Service: A vendor hosts OpenStack management software (without any hardware) as a service. Customers sign up for the service and pair it with their internal servers, storage and networks to get a fully operational private cloud.
- Appliance based OpenStack: Nebula was a vendor that sold appliances that could be plugged into a network which spawned an OpenStack deployment.
What is Hypervisor and what types of hypervisors are there
If you know what a private cloud is and you know the infrastructure of it, you’ve probably heard about hypervisor.
It is the part of the private cloud that manages the virtual machines, i.e. it is the part (program) that enables multiple operating systems to share the same hardware. Each operating system could use all the hardware (processor, memory) if no other operating system is on. That is the maximum hardware available to one operating system in the cloud.
Nevertheless, the hypervisor is what controls and allocates what portion of hardware resources each operating system should get, in order every one o them to get what they need and not to disrupt each other.
Virtualization is changing the mindset from physical to logical.
What virtualization means is creating more logical IT resources, called virtual systems, within one physical system. That’s called system virtualization. It most commonly uses the hypervisor for managing the resources for every virtual system. The hypervisor is a software that can virtualize the hardware resources.
Virtualization, changing the mindset from physical to logical.
There are two types of hypervisors:
- Type 1 hypervisor: hypervisors run directly on the system hardware – A “bare metal” embedded hypervisor,
- Type 2 hypervisor: hypervisors run on a host operating system that provides virtualization services, such as I/O device support and memory management.
how type 1 and type 2 hypervisors differ
Type 1 hypervisors:
1. VMware ESX and ESXi
These hypervisors offer advanced features and scalability, but require licensing, so the costs are higher.
There are some lower-cost bundles that VMware offers and they can make hypervisor technology more affordable for small infrastructures.
VMware is the leader in the Type-1 hypervisors. Their vSphere/ESXi product is available in a free edition and 5 commercial editions.
2. Microsoft Hyper-V
The Microsoft hypervisor, Hyper-V doesn’t offer many of the advanced features that VMware’s products provide.
However, with XenServer and vSphere, Hyper-V is one of the top 3 Type-1 hypervisors.
It was first released with Windows Server, but now Hyper-V has been greatly enhanced with Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V. Hyper-V is available in both a free edition (with no GUI and no virtualization rights) and 4 commercial editions – Foundations (OEM only), Essentials, Standard, and Datacenter. Hyper-V
3. Citrix XenServer
It began as an open source project.
The core hypervisor technology is free, but like VMware’s free ESXi, it has almost no advanced features.
Xen is a type-1 bare-metal hypervisor. Just as Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization uses KVM, Citrix uses Xen in the commercial XenServer.
Today, the Xen open source projects and community are at Xen.org. Today, XenServer is a commercial type-1 hypervisor solution from Citrix, offered in 4 editions. Confusingly, Citrix has also branded their other proprietary solutions like XenApp and XenDesktop with the Xen name.
4. Oracle VM
The Oracle hypervisor is based on the open source Xen.
However, if you need hypervisor support and product updates, it will cost you.
Oracle VM lacks many of the advanced features found in other bare-metal virtualization hypervisors.
Type 2 hypervisor
1. VMware Workstation/Fusion/Player
VMware Player is a free virtualization hypervisor.
It is intended to run only one virtual machine (VM) and does not allow creating VMs.
VMware Workstation is a more robust hypervisor with some advanced features, such as record-and-replay and VM snapshot support.
VMware Workstation has three major use cases:
- for running multiple different operating systems or versions of one OS on one desktop,
- for developers that need sandbox environments and snapshots, or
- for labs and demonstration purposes.
2. VMware Server
VMware Server is a free, hosted virtualization hypervisor that’s very similar to the VMware Workstation.
VMware has halted development on Server since 2009
3. Microsoft Virtual PC
This is the latest Microsoft’s version of this hypervisor technology, Windows Virtual PC and runs only on Windows 7 and supports only Windows operating systems running on it.
4. Oracle VM VirtualBox
VirtualBox hypervisor technology provides reasonable performance and features if you want to virtualize on a budget. Despite being a free, hosted product with a very small footprint, VirtualBox shares many features with VMware vSphere and Microsoft Hyper-V.
5. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization
Red Hat’s Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) has qualities of both a hosted and a bare-metal virtualization hypervisor. It can turn the Linux kernel itself into a hypervisor so the VMs have direct access to the physical hardware.
This is a virtualization infrastructure for the Linux kernel. It supports native virtualization on processors with hardware virtualization extensions.
The open-source KVM (or Kernel-Based Virtual Machine) is a Linux-based type-1 hypervisor that can be added to most Linux operating systems including Ubuntu, Debian, SUSE, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux, but also Solaris, and Windows.
We use KVM in VapourApps Private Cloud:
- Virtualization engine – OpenStack on KVM
- Predefined virtual servers based on Debian
- Orchestration and management web dashboard, a customized Horizon dashboard.
The owner of the tenant or the IT administrator, can manage his virtual servers, users, groups and monitor the status of the used application from a single dashboard.
What is Hypervisor and what types of hypervisors are there
You did one Recovery Media before and damaged/lost it. Trying to get another make another one, getting below message: “You can have only one copy of the Microsoft Window Operating system. The Product Recovery Media Creator will exit now.”
Lenovo, in their infinite wisdom, have changed how they store the fact that the recovery image has already been created in newer versions of their recovery software. Amusingly they have not bothered to correct the “Microsoft Window” typo as well!
Process Monitor reveals that
recovburncd.exe reads the file
Q:\FactoryRecovery\RECOVERY.INI:DONE before bugging out. The colon indicates the use of an alternate File Stream. After a recovery image has been created, this stream contains the string
1\r\n. Deleting the stream does not work, but replacing the stream contents with the string
0\r\n works. This can be done from the command prompt:
echo 0 > Q:\FactoryRecovery\RECOVERY.INI:Done
Lenovo – You can have only one copy of the Microsoft Windows operating system.
Lenovo notebooks come with Factory Recovery Disks creation software. This allows you to create recovery disk in case you want to re install the notebook other than from the local hard disk. You can create the recovery discs on CD/DVD, memory disk or USB hard disk.
Attention: The USB hard disk will be formatted and you loose all the data!
It takes a long time to prepare the creation of the recovery media. Everything is copied into c:\swshare before then it gets copied to the external source you selected.
You can do this only one time! If you want to create the recovery disks more than once, you get a message:
You can have only one copy of the Microsoft Windows operating system. The Product Recovery Media Creator will exit now.
This is the workaround for this problem:
All you need it in the Lenovo_Recovery disk. In my case its drive letter Q:\ If i click on this drive in the explorer it show you nothing cause the content is hidden!
- Open the Explorer and then click Organize -> Folder and search options
- In window Folder Options click tab View
- Now enable Show hidden files, folders, and drives and then click OK The option of Hide operating system files should be made unchecked and then you’ll be able to see the files.
- Click on the Lenovo_Recovery drive, in my case drive Q:\
- Here is every thing needed to create the recovery disks!
- Edit the file FactoryRecovery\service_done.ini
- Change the string DONE=1 to DONE=0 and exit the editor saving the changes
- You can now recreate the Factory Recovery Disks
Have fun, always backup data before restoring any disks!
The quick answer is: change the value of the registry entry, HKCU\Software\Lenovo\Factory Recovery\done, to 0. For my case, the Q:\ drive was never altered to turn on the forbidding flag. It was totally done through this switch in your system’s registry.
For people with patience on reading how I found out, this is how. I also use Process Monitor to track what recovburncd.exe did after launching (up to the point where there was only the “Cancel” button for me to terminate it). So I tried to identify (within the activity list in Process Monitor) which activity prevented recovburncd.exe from enabling the “OK” button. Then, I saw the registry entry mentioned above had value 1, reminding me of the similar terminologies in the other two ways (Sam Morris’ method and the service_done.ini method) of fixing the “done” flag. It was a bingo!
re-enable Recovery Media creation on Lenovo
reset Lenovo – Factory Recovery Disks
how reset state of Lenovo recovery boot media to 0
Problem: “When you select the option to activate Office by telephone, you may see the following error: Telephone activation is no longer supported for your product.”
Call below numbers from your location.
Ireland: mobile or toll 01 447 5390, toll-free 1800 930 031
UK: mobile or toll 203 147 4930, toll-free 0800 018 8354
Spain: mobile or toll (34) (91) 114 1464, toll-free (900) 150 889
Germany: mobile or toll (49) (69) 2222 5494, toll-free (0) (800) 2848-283
Latvia: mobile or toll (371) (67) 852 112, toll-free (802) 00920
Lithuania: mobile or toll (370) 520 511 20, toll-free (800) 22032
Russia: mobile or toll (7) (495) 745 5445, toll-free (8) (800) 200 8002
Follow automatic answering system`s instructions providing Installation Code.
Enter your Confirmation Code provided by Telephone activation 🙂
1.Turn off the PC, and put in the Windows installation DVD or USB key.
2.Boot the PC to the DVD or USB key in UEFI mode. For more info, see Boot to UEFI Mode or Legacy BIOS mode.
3.From inside Windows Setup, press Shift+F10 to open a command prompt window.
4.Open the diskpart tool:
5.Identify the drive to reformat:
type: list disk
6.Select the drive, and reformat it:
type: select disk 0
– “0” is the target drive
type: convert gpt
7.Close the command prompt window. Alt+F4
8.Continue the Windows Setup installation.
If You got new Li-Ion battery(type of the battery is VERY IMPORTANT) You will need to “train” it:
1. Please discharge the battery to 2% then fully charge at the first time.
2. It is forbidden to discharge to 0% on normal use, it will be easily damaged and shorten the usage life; It must be turned off or recharged(in 1-2 days) if as low as 2%.
3. It must be charged above 70% before long time storage(more than three months).
4. Battery needs recycling frequently. It is recommended to discharge and charge it once per two months at least. The battery will achieve best performance, please discharging it to 2%, and then charging it full.
5. When the battery cannot charge or charge less power, maybe the laptop adapter is mismatch or output power is lower. Please immediately replace the match and the function normal adapter to confirm is whether the problem caused by the adapter.
6. Never ever take out the battery from the laptop when charging or discharging.
By pressing a combination of keys, you can do things that normally need a mouse, trackpad, or other input device.
To use a keyboard shortcut, hold down one or more modifier keys while pressing the last key of the shortcut. For example, to use the shortcut Command”⌘”+C (copy), hold down Command”⌘”, press C, then release both keys. Mac menus and keyboards often use symbols for certain keys, including the modifier keys:
•Caps Lock ⇪
If you’re using a keyboard made for Windows PCs, use the Alt key instead of Option, and the Windows logo key instead of Command. Some Mac keyboards and shortcuts use special keys in the top row, which include icons for volume, display brightness, and other functions. Press the icon key to perform that function, or combine it with the Fn key to use it as an F1, F2, F3, or other standard function key.
To learn more shortcuts, check the menus of the app you’re using. Every app can have its own shortcuts, and shortcuts that work in one app may not work in another.